Six sigma design quality analyses for new products include the modeling and simulation of major circuit components and assemblies during the early phase of the design. The state of the design analysis tools allows for good determination of worst-case as well as statistical analysis of designs in individual disciplines, but not for multidisciplinary analysis in complex products. The integration of the various elements and disciplines of product design is mostly performed in the prototype phase of the design cycle. The potential defect rate for the overall product manufacturing can be surmised from the prototype data. Defect reduction for the production phase might involve interdisciplinary analysis of trade-offs of design elements. The DoE tools offer good resolution of some of these problems, as shown in the case study presented in the next section.