The electronic products being developed today are more complex than previous products. The number of components on each printed circuit board (PCB) is increasing，as well as the total number 〇f PCBs in the product. In the following example, the effects of these complexities on the final product turn-on will be demonstrated. The historical quality level that sustained the production process for older products is not adequate for new complex products. The in-process manufacturing quality of components and PCBs will have to be improved significantly to counteract the increased number of assemblies and components.